Name: Butorphanol (butorphanol tartarate).
Trade Name(s): Torbugesic (injectable), Torbutrol (tablets).
Preparation: Sterile injectable liquid in 10ml or 50 ml mulitdose vials. Each ml contains 10mg of butorphanol tartrate.
Description: Butorphanol tartrate is a synthetic, centrally acting, opioid agonist-antagonist analgesic classed as a narcotic under the Controlled Substances Act.
Availability: Butorphanol is a controlled drug and must be obtained through a licensed veterinarian. Regulations regarding security and record keeping apply.
Indications: For the relief of mild to moderate, deep or visceral pain, and for chronic pain. Some sedation accompanies the analgesia.
Dosage: Consult the laboratory animal veterinarian.
Routes of administration: Intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intavenous
Duration of action: About 4 hours
Mechanism of analgesic action: Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid agonist-antagonist analgesic acting at the m and k receptors.
Clinical pharmacology: Butorphanol tartrate is a member of the phenanthrene chemicals. The chemical name is morphine-3, 14-diol, 17-(cyclobutylmethyl)-, (-),
(S-(R*,R*))-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioate (1:1). In animals, butorphanol has been demonstrated to be 4-30 times more potent than morphine. Butorphanol also has potent antitussive activity.
Cardiovascular: Cardiopulmonary depressant effects are minimal.
Respiratory: Cardiopulmonary depressant effects are minimal.
Drug Interactions: used with caution with other sedative or analgaesic drugs as these are likely to produce additive effects.
Pain Management in Animals. 2000 Flecknell P and Waterman-Pearson A (eds). WB Saunders, London 184pp
Laboratory Animal Anesthesia. 1996. Flecknell P. Academic Press, London. 274 pp.
Compendium of Veterinary Products, 6th Ed. 1999. Canadian Animal Health Institute. North American Compendiums, Hensall, Ontario