Three Rs

Three Rs

The Three Rs tenet (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) guides the ethical use of animals in science. It is widely accepted internationally as the ethic of animal experimentation and is embedded in the conduct of animal-based science in Canada and throughout many countries in the world.

Three Rs web site
  • Replacement refers to methods which avoid or replace the use of animals in an area where animals would otherwise have been used
  • Reduction refers to any strategy that will result in fewer animals being used
  • Refinement refers to the modification of husbandry or experimental procedures to minimize pain and distress

Our activities have resulted in the creation of web-based Three Rs resources such as:

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