and Policies

Three Rs

Three Rs web site

The Three Rs tenet (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) is widely accepted internationally as the ethic of animal experimentation and, in many countries, guides those using animals for scientific purposes. This tenet is also embedded in the conduct of animal-based science in Canada and is at the heart of all CCAC policies and guidelines, encouraging individuals to:

  • Replace: Avoid or replace the use of animals wherever possible
  • Reduce: Employ strategies that will result in fewer animals being used and which are consistent with sound experimental design
  • Refine: Modify husbandry or experimental procedures to minimize pain and distress

As part of its on-going efforts to promote and implement Three Rs alternatives in Canadian science, the CCAC has developed and made available several web-based resources. These are not meant to supplant CCAC guidelines and are not used as a basis for recommendations made in CCAC assessment reports. Instead, they are intended to assist visitors in finding the specific information they need to fully implement the guidelines and the tenet of the Three Rs, and to achieve high standards of animal welfare.

We invite you to use the following resources while designing an experiment, reviewing an animal use protocol or if you wish to access the latest information on Three Rs alternatives and best practices: