and for use in field settings
Application and Cautions
- Not listed as an acceptable method of euthanasia under laboratory conditions due to greater potential for operator error or safety hazard, which might result in animal suffering.
- May be useful to end animal suffering where other methods are not practically available and the operator has appropriate skills and experience (Longair et al., 1991).
- The operator must take into account differences in brain position and skull conformation between species, as well as the energy requirement for skull bone penetration (Blackmore, 1985; Blackmore et al., 1995a; Blackmore et al., 1995b; Finnie, 1994; Longair et al., 1991).
- Loss of consciousness is instantaneous if the projectile destroys most of the brain (AVMA, 2007).
American Veterinary Medical Association – AVMA (2007) AVMA guidelines on euthanasia. Schaumburg IL: AVMA.
Blackmore D.K. (1985) Energy requirements for the penetration of heads of domestic stock and the development of a multiple projectile. The Veterinary Record 116(2):36-40.
Blackmore D.K., Bowling M.C., Madie P., Nutman A., Barnes G.R., Davies A.S., Donoghue M. and Kirk E.J. (1995a) The use of a shotgun for emergency slaughter or euthanasia of large mature pigs. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 43(4):134-137.
Blackmore D.K., Madie P., Bowling M.C., Nutman A., Davies A.S., McLeod W.R., Taylor J. and Degen M. (1995b). The use of a shotgun for euthanasia of stranded cetaceans. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 43(4):158-159.
Finnie J.W. (1994) Neuroradiological aspects of experimental traumatic missile injury in sheep. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 42(2):54-57.
Longair J.A., Finley G.G., Laniel M.-A., MacKay C., Mould K., Olfert E.D., Rowsell H. and Preston A. (1991) Guidelines for euthanasia of domestic animals by firearms. Canadian Veterinary Journal 32(12):724-726.
- Dangers to the operator and a high potential for operator error.
Potential Influence on Scientific Data
- Barbiturates & Derivatives
- Clove oil (Eugenol)
- Electrical Stunning
- Etomidate & Metomidate
- Inert gases
- Inhalant Anesthetics
- Penetrating Captive Bolt
- TMS (MS222, tricaine)